But in recent centuries, the 13 Principles became standard, and are considered binding and cardinal by Orthodox authorities in a virtually universal manner.
During the Middle Ages, two systems of thought competed for theological primacy, their advocates promoting them as explanatory foundations for observance of the Law.
Orthodox Judaism includes movements such as Modern Orthodox Judaism (אורתודוקסיה מודרנית), Chardal, and Ultra-Orthodox or Haredi Judaism (יהדות חרדית).
As of 2001, Orthodox Jews and Jews affiliated with an Orthodox synagogue accounted for approximately 50% of British Jews (150,000), 27% of Israeli Jews (1,500,000), Orthodoxy is not one single movement or school of thought.
There is no single rabbinical body to which all rabbis are expected to belong, or any one organization representing member congregations.
These, like the apopathic views of Yeshayahu Leibowitz or the Feminist interpretation of Tamar Ross, had little to no influence on the mainstream.
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Orthodox Judaism is the approach to religious Judaism which subscribes to a tradition of mass revelation, and adheres to the interpretation and application of the laws and ethics of the Torah, as legislated in the Talmudic texts by the Tannaim and Amoraim.
According to the New Jersey Press Association, several media entities refrain from using the term "ultra-Orthodox", including the Religion Newswriters Association; JTA, the global Jewish news service; and the Star-Ledger, New Jersey's largest daily newspaper.
Several local Jewish papers, including New York's Jewish Week and Philadelphia's Jewish Exponent, have also dropped use of the term.